Climbing Nutrition

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Altitude

Need to copy and update from the altitude website at the old webpage. Also copy from http://www.its.caltech.edu/~alpine/whitney_tips.shtml.

Here's a first attempt at copying the information from the old websites. This should be integrated, edited and updated.

Intro

Altitude sickness is a broad term that includes Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) as well as the more serious HAPE and HACE (note: in AMS, acute is a technical term that means rapid onset, as opposed to being synonymous with severe). Clearly, the best method to avoid sickness is gradual ascent, and the best method to deal with symptoms is rapid descent. This page deals with second choice options, and in particular, the every fascinating subject of drugs. Climbers have tried different drugs to combat altitude sickness, including acetazolamide (aka Diamox), dexamethasone (aka Decadron), Nifedipine, Sildenafil (aka Viagra) and ginkgo biloba extract.

In general, for climbing the Sierras, it is possible, though unlikely to develop more serious forms of Altitude Sickness. Because it is so unlikely, most parties will not have strong drugs like Acetazolamide or Decadron, and hence if a serious condition does develop, the only solution is quick descent to the valley.

"Altitude sickness is best prevented by slow ascent, but the safe rate of ascent varies among individuals. Most can ascend to 5000 ft (1500 m) in 1 day without symptoms, but many are affected by ascending to 8000 ft (2500 m). Above this level, a rate of 1500 ft (460 m)/day is advisable. Climbers should learn how fast they can ascend without developing symptoms; a climbing party should be paced for its slowest member. Although physical fitness enables greater exertion with less O2 consumption, it does not protect against any form of altitude sickness. Strenuous effort should be avoided for 24 to 36 h after the ascent is completed, but bed rest is less beneficial than mild exercise.
"Drinking much more water than usual is important, becase overbreathing dry air at altitude greatly increases water loss, and dehydration with some degree of hypovolemia aggravates symptoms. Additional salt should be avoided. Alcohol seems to worsen AMS and diminishes nocturnal ventilation, thus accentuating sleep disturbance. Eating frequent small meals that are high in easily digested carbohydrates (eg. fruits, jams, starches) improves altitude tolerance and is recommended for the first few days "
"Acetazolamide 125 mg at bedtime (for most persons) or 125 mg q 8 h is an effective prophylactic for AMS. Sustained-release capsules (500 mg once daily) are also available. Starting acetazolamide before the ascent has no advantage. Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase, increasing ventilation and allowing better O2 transport with less alkalosis; it eliminates periodic breathing (almost universal during sleep at high altitude), thus preventing sharp falls in blood O2. Acetazolamide should not be given to patients allergic to sulfa drugs. Low-flow O2 during sleep has the same effect but is inconvenient. Analogs of acetazolamide offer no advantage. Antacids are useless for prevention. Dexamethasone, which minimizes symptoms of AMS, is not recommended for prevention. "
"Retinal hemorrhages require no treatment, generally resolving while the climber remains at high altitude. AMS seldom requires treatment other than fluids, analgesics, a light diet, mild activity and (rarely) descent. Dexamethasone 4 mg po q 6 h is effective; acetazolamide 250 mg po q 6 h may alleviate symptoms. "
  • The high-altitude brain, T.F. Hornbein, J. Exp. Biol. Sep. 2001 (18). This is the abstract from PubMed. Hornbein is also (or was) a noted climber. He and Willi Unsoeld were the first to climb the West Ridge of Everest in the 50s, and survived a high-altitude bivouac. Also, it turns out this issue of the Journal of Experimental Biology is devoted to hypoxia research. If you have access (eg. all Caltech users), you can view the issues's contents. Here is the full-text html form of Thomas Horbein's article.

Here are two articles about antioxidants; they may be more useful for their links

  • Oxidative Stress in Humans Training in a Cold, Moderate Altitude Environment, Schmidt et al, Wilderness and Environmental Medicine Vol. 13, no. 2 pp 94. Full text from WMS site or abstract via Pub Med (with link to full text). About antioxidants (e.g. vitamins C and E, lipoic acid, ginkgo biloba) for longer term exposure to altitude. Basic conclusion: antioxidants only useful for people who have low antioxidant status (regardless of altitude).
  • Work at high altitude and oxidative stress: antioxidant nutrients, E.W. Askew, Toxicology Vol. 180, Issue 2, p. 107. Nov. 2002. Abstract via science direct, or if you have access (e.g. all JPL users, but not plain Caltech users), they have the full text. If you have a Caltech IP or know the alpine club password, you can access a full text pdf here (which is restricted).

Dehydration and altitude

Follow almost any altitude link on this page and it will tell you to stay hydrated! Certainly very good advice. But, there are a few things to consider. Here are two points from the Institute for Altitude Medicine (IFAM -- their website has lots of good info) in Telluride, Colorado (where Dr. Peter Hackett works):

  • Myth # 1 - Don't drink caffeine at altitude. We don't know where this false assumption came from, but likely from the fact that caffeine is a mild diuretic (makes you pee). The concern is that it could dehydrate you and contribute to altitude sickness. This concern is unfounded unless you drink pots of black sludge coffee a day and little else. In reality, caffeine stimulates your brain, kidneys and breathing, all of which are helpful at altitude. And for those people who drink several caffeinated beverages a day, stopping abruptly can cause a profound headache.
  • Myth #4 - Drinking extra water will protect you from altitude illness. Staying hydrated is important at altitude. Symptoms of dehydration are similar to AMS. In reality you only need an additional liter to a liter and a half of water at altitude. Too much water is harmful and can dilute your body's sodium levels (hyponatremia) causing weakness, confusion, seizures, and coma. A good rule of thumb to assess for hydration is to check your urine. Clear urine indicates adequate hydration, dark urine suggest dehydration and the need to drink more water.

Also very interesting is this excerpt from a NOVA interview with Dr. Peter Hackett: (note: he is probably referring to HACE; I am unsure whether he implies that his extends to general AMS as well)

NOVA: You've said it is best to be dehydrated at altitude because a dehydrated brain doesn't swell at altitude.
PETER HACKETT: There's evidence that the people who do best at altitude are dehydrated. That is the body resets the serum of molality level which has to do with the water balance. And the body, for some reason, prefers to be dry at high altitude. My own thinking is that this is good for the body because it keeps the brain a little bit drier and softer. So that if it does start to accumulate a little water or get a little swelling, it can be tolerated better.

More advice from Peter Hackett, on a slightly different topic, comes via a mention in Colby Coombs "Denali's West Buttress" book (available in our library. In this book, Colin Grissom, M.D., writes a few pages on altitude illness, and writes the following slightly cryptic sentences:

Researchers continue to study and attempt to understand why some people acclimate to altitude and others do not. Hackett believes "lazy breathers," particularly long-distance runners, are most likely to experience altitude related problems. HACE and HAPE afflicts the strong and weak alike, althought being aerobically fit provides a definite advantage...

I wasn't able to find the origin of this. A quick google search for "lazy breathers" doesn't turn up much (nothing in wikipedia or pubmed) other than stuff on yoga and public speaking; it seems that it is a lay term for not breathing deeply (and that 99% of the population are lazy breathers). So this remains a mystery...

Charles Houston's advice

Dr. Charles Houston was the expert on altitude sickness until his death, at age 96, in September 2009. His track record in both the mountaineering world and the medical world is unparalleled. His "street-cred" came from being on the first-ascent party to Nanda Devi in 1936, then leading an expedition to K2 in 1938, and being part of the famous 1953 American K2 expedition (the one with the famous belay of Pete Schoening). He began studying high-altitude effects on humans in World War II and lead Operation Everest, which studied altitude effects on pilots (and again leading Operation Everest II in 1985). From 1967 to 1979, he was based at the 17,500' lab on Mount Logan in the Canadian Yukon. Perhaps the only other medical researcher with such street-cred is Dr. Peter Hackett, who ran the lab at the 14,200' camp on Denali from 1982 to 1989.

So, Houston's book Going Higher: Oxygen, Man and Mountains (1st edition was from 1980; the club has the 1998 4th edition in our library; part of the 2005 5th edition is on Google Books (update, 2010, we now have the 2005 5th edition in our library) is the bible for alpinists (or "arm-chair" doctors). Read the book! Below are just a few snippets of his advice for those of you without access to the book.

on Acetazolamide (Diamox): "At first the recommended dosage was 250 mg three times a day, starting several days before the ascent. This increased urination, especially at night, and caused some unpleasant symptoms. Then the recommended dosages was reduced to 125 mg twice a day; I generally recommend 125 mg once a day, at bedtime. This is effective for most people, causes few symptoms, and does not increase urine flow at night. If this does not prevent symptoms, I advise increasing the dose to 250 mg twice a day, and starting only on the day of the ascent. It's important to tailor the dose to a person's experience or wishes, and over time an ideal dose can be found. Older authorities and many articles and books still suggest the larger dose. Because Diamox is an enzyme inhibitor and acts rapidly, perhaps you don't need to take it several days before starting your climb, as is sometimes advised. Delayed-action pills provide a larger dose, but by a sustained slow release, which some like. I prefer the regular form so the dose can be adjusted if needed."
on diet: "We have good theoretical reason to believe that a diet that is very high in carbohydrate and contains virtually no fat or protein will decrease mountain illnesses. In practice, though, such a pure carbohydrate diet becomes too distasteful after a day or two and really is hard to accept. Recent studies of a diet that is 70 percent carbohydrate have shown no benefit in preventing mountain sickness. "Generally accepted is a game plan for eating frequent small high-carbohydrate snacks during the day, and adding protein at night. A few special high-carbohydrate products have been touted, but so far no well-controlled study at altitude has been reported."
on Viagra (p. 103 5th ed): "A very low dose of Viagra (sildenafil citrate), 25 mg every three hours, has proven to be more effective than nifedipine (a drug that dilates arteries) in treating HAPE, and Viagra does not have as strong a tendency to lower blood pressure as nifedipine has. Whether or not the longer-acting analog of Viagra, marketed under the brand name Cialis, will be suitable for HAPE susceptibles to take prior to a high climb remains to be tested."
on ROS (p. 103-4 5th ed; ROS stands for Reactive Oxygen Species, known as "free radicals" in popular literature): "Elevated ROS levels predispose the climber at high altitude to both HAPE and HACE in several ways..."



"If elevated ROS levels lead to HAPE and HACE, should climbers at altitude simply flood their systems with antioxidants such as vitamin E to reduce these chemicals? There is no clear answer to this question, but caution is probably in order. Low levels of ROS serve several important positive functions in the cells. They are needed for the production of thyroid hormone and for optimal force production by muscle. Perhaps most important, ROS serve as part of the natural cellular defense against infection, and inflammation from lung infections can increase the likelihood of HAPE. In light of this, it is probably not surprising that studies of the use of antioxidants to prevent HACE and HAPE suggest they do not help in staving off mountain sickness."

(another possible benefit of high ROS levels): "ROS may also play a role in acclimatization to altitude. ... Over time at high altitude, ROS can stimulate or induce iNOS activity, leading to increased NO [ed.: this is nitric oxide, not nitrous oxide] production. Thus, climbers ascending to altitude may initially experience reduced NO levels but later achieve elevated levels. This NO may block inflammation in the lung and brain and dilate pulmonary blood vessels, contributing to the reduced inflammation and pulmonary artery pressures that occur during the process of acclimatization."

on EPO (p. 107-8 5th ed; EPO is Erythropoietin, used in the cycling world as an illegal doping drug): "EPO... stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells. Hypoxia [lack of oxygen]... activates previously dormant EPO-producing cells. ... Increased EPO levels are responsible for the high red blood cell concentration (high hematocrit) we see in those who live at high altitude for extended periods and in those with severe lung disease.

Advice for Sierra Mountaineers

This is copied from http://www.its.caltech.edu/~alpine/whitney_tips.shtml and needs to be edited.

Mt. Whitney is over 14,000', which means that for most people, some mild symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) are likely, while High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE) and High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) are possible, although unlikely. AMS by itself is usually not a concern, although it may cause discomfort.

During the numerous winter mountaineering trips the club has done, no one has been seriously sick with AMS, but every year, about 1 of 10 people is affect by AMS enough not to attempt the summit (i.e. going no higher than the 12,000' high camp). We generally climb Mt. Whitney in two groups, one group taking 2 days to reach high camp (recommended) and one group taking 1 day (not recommended, only for people who have joined us on a previous winter trip). The 2 day ascent greatly helps reduce the incidence of AMS.

AMS

What is AMS? AMS is part of a spectrum of illness, with HACE at the extreme end (HAPE and HACE often coincide, but are not caused by the same mechanism). AMS usually refers to the mild spectrum of AMS/HACE. Here is a table of common symptoms of AMS (taken from Houston's book):

Symptom/Sign Frequency of occurrence in AMS sufferer
Mild Headache 54%
Easy Fatigue 28%
Shortness of Breath 21%
Dizziness 21%
Loss of Appetite 11%
Sleep Disturbance 10%
Severe Headache 8%
Vomiting 3%
Retinal Hemmorhages very rare

In the table, the percentages are how likely someone with AMS will experience that particular sign or symptom; it does not mean that is the likelihood that an average person at altitude will experience that sign or symptom. Most of the signs and symptoms are not serious (of course, dizziness and fatigue affect your climbing), and normal medication can be taken (Houston says ibuprofen is a bit more affective that aspirin for altitude headaches).

Treatment

For most AMS, there's not much to do other than take something for the headache. Resting, hydrating and slow ascent rates help prevent and reduce AMS. Of course acclimatizing will help alleviate AMS, but this is often impractical on weekend trips to the Sierras. The drug Acetazolamide (aka Diamox) will help with AMS, but it requires a prescription. Houston suggests taking 125 mg once a day before bed; larger doses (such as 250 mg twice a day) are often recommended, but Houston's opinion is that those doses are only necessary if the lower dose fails to work. Diamox is a diuretic and a strong medicine; some people report strong, vivid dreams at night and numbness in the lips, and it also makes carbonated beverages taste weird. Houston suggests that most of these side effects (most importantly, the diuretic effect) are not as important at the lower 125 mg/day dose.

Dexamethasone (aka Decadron) is a steroid that is also preventative, but not recommended as often as Diamox. As of the late 90s, only Diamox was FDA approved expressly for the treatment of altitude sickness, although your doctor may prescribe Dex.

Nifedipine (aka Adalat, Procardia) is used as a treatment for HAPE. You do not want to take it unless you are seriously ill with HAPE. Nitric Oxide has been used as a treatment for HAPE, but is not practical in our situation. Nitroglycerine tablets under the tongue have been used before for treatment of HAPE, but are no longer recommended. Ammonium Chloride to acidify the blood (and allow you to hyperventilate) hadn't been studied much when Houston's book was published. Sildenafil (aka Viagra) has been used before; Houston doesn't mention it in his text; it is similar to nifedipine but more potent. Here's a Los Angeles Times article on sildenafil.

People at higher risk for AMS

If you fall into any of the following categories, it does not mean you will have worse AMS symptoms than the average person, but it does mean that you might want to do some research and perhaps contact your doctor before venturing to high altitudes (especially if you haven't been to high altitudes before).

Again, if you are in one of the above categories, it is not necessarily a contraindication to high altitude, but you might want to do some research.

Nutrition, etc. (not just for high altitude )

Overview and misc info

In a 1988 study, over 50 performance-enhancing drugs and techniques were rejected. The six that were approved are caffeine, ephedrine, energy drinks, modafinil, creatine, and blood-loading (aka blood doping). See Blood doping page and this book: Pugliese, David (2002). Canada's Secret Commandos. Ottawa: Esprit de Corps Books. ISBN 1-895896-18-5.

It's notable that EPO is not listed. Taking EPO at high altitudes, when blood is already thickening due to acclimatization, coupled with long storm-bound tent sessions, give a high risk for Thrombosis.

We have a feature length New Scientist article from 2006 at modafinil.html that is restricted. For a counterpoint to this article, see "Modafinil: Stimulant Drug in Sheep's Clothing".

Lactic acid

For lactic acid, see this New York Times article "Lactic Acid Is Not Muscles' Foe, It's Fuel" which describes the common misconception that lactic acid causes muscles to stop working efficiently (rather, it's correlated, and may even help).

Regarding lactic acid, the GU Roctane website says "From there we increase the amount of histidine, an essential amino acid, to act as a buffer and slow the energy-sapping lactic acid build-up in muscles" which didn't sound right. A nutritionist for GU clarified:

To clarify, histidine does not prevent the production of lactic acid; it can decrease the amount of hydrogen ions that are built up during intense exercise. These hydrogen ions are a product of each lactic acid that is produced and immediately ionized to its conjugate base, lactate. Lactate is the form that can be used for energy during exercise. These hydrogen ions, which I speak of, are the culprits to all things blamed on “lactic acid”, and furthermore are the cause of metabolic acidosis. “Lactic acid” is commonly used incorrectly throughout exercise science literature and I must admit we have fallen into the same habit, as well. Histidine can be a buffer to help decrease the build up of hydrogen ions and aid in preventing the “burn” and muscle fatigue. So don’t fret, you’re still going to be producing lactic acid!

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo (aka gingko) biloba is often used to alleviate mild symptoms of altitude sickness. It is usually not associated with strong side effects, and we would recommend trying ginkgo for people who get mild altitude headaches. Anecdotal evidence suggests it might make sense to start taking it a week or so before your trip.

Old studies suggested it alleviates altitude headaches, though I think new studies have shown that this is not for certain. It is cheap and safe, however, and readily available. See this summary about Ginkgo Biloba by Dr. Peter Hackett. Here are some recent 2009 articles on ginkgo done by Hackett and coauthors:

They seem to conclude that ginkgo extract is not standardized well enough to draw meaningful conclusions -- some brands work, others don't.

Caffeine

Caffeine has mixed effects, and it certainly isn't recommended unconditionally, but it is worth looking into. It is often avoided in the mountains because of its diuretic properties (which are generally much milder than popular belief). Not all similar substances are diuretic, e.g. taurine is not Also, caffeine is only a weak diuretic and probably does not present a problem; see this summary article or the real journal article, or Caffeine article by Armstrong et al in Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, which is summarized here:

In his review, Caffeine, Body Fluid-Electrolyte Balance, and Exercise Performance, Lawrence E. Armstrong, a professor of exercise physiology at the University of Connecticut disproves the notion that caffeinated beverages rob us of our precious fluids. By reviewing the scientific research on the subject, he concludes that although caffeine, like water, is a mild diuresis (it increases excretion of urine), moderate caffeine consumption does not produce a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that can affect health or exercise performance. Furthermore, we retain roughly the same amount of fluid after drinking a caffeinated beverage as we do after drinking water.
Even more encouraging for habitual coffee consumers is the finding that those with caffeine tolerance have reduced likelihood that a fluid electrolyte imbalance will occur. The more regular your caffeine habit, the more fluid your body is conditioned to retain.

Benefits of caffeine

The wikipedia page on the health effects of caffeine lists hundreds of pros and cons. Most people have already made up their mind that caffeine is either a wonder drug or a bane of society, and both sides of the debate can find evidence to support their argument. For an athletic supplement, it is my (Stephen) view that caffeine is beneficial, but I would only suggest taking a quantity of it that you are used to. Whenever I overdose on caffeine, I quickly eat some food and this helps a lot to reduce jitters. Here are some basic benefits of caffeine:

Disadvantages of caffeine

Antioxidants

Extremely important for high altitude! Exercise and altitude both increase production of Reactive Oxygen Species. See Aug, 2006 New Scientist article about antioxidants in general. Despite the article listing evidence against supplements in the general population, they appear to be somewhat effective at high altitude for preventing AMS symptoms. The New Scientist article also gives a list of foods with high levels of antioxidants. In short, eat lots of pecans on your trips above 12,000'.

Garlic

To quote from the abstract of "Garlic as an anti-fatigue agent" (Mol Nutr Food Res 2007), "More than three thousand publications in the past have confirmed the efficacy of garlic for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases, acknowledging and validating its traditional uses." Basically, the stuff has been used for everything, and it appears it may have some use for mountaineering (due to its effects on circulation -- so not just for high altitude, but also for any exercise or any outing in cold weather).

For example, "Garlic prevents hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats" (AM J Physiol 1998) discusses garlic and altitude a bit (from the abstract: "Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction underlies the development of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Anecdotal observations suggest a beneficial effect of garlic in preventing high-altitude symptoms...")

From this excerpt of "Climbing: training for peak performance" (2002) by Clyde Soles (available in our library), we have:

Garlic. Garlic has been used for millennia to help thin the blood. Four large cloves of raw garlic per day, or 2 grams of garlic powder, might improve blood flow in the lungs by reducing pulmonary vasoconstriction. It's been shown effective in rats, but no human studies have confirmed the results. Unfortunately, cooking deactives the active ingredient (allicin), though other compounds are released that may also be beneficial.

From this excerpt of "Extreme alpinism: climbing light" (1999) by Mark Twight (also in our library), we have:

Garlic. Garlic is an essential cold-weather supplement. It's a better anti-clotting agent than aspirin and reduces the stickiness of platelets, which improves overall blood circulation. Look for a garlic supplement with a standardized amount of S-allyclysteine, the strongest-acting pharmacological compound in garlic. Saponins, steroid-like compounds found in garlic, inhibit an enzyme in the muscle cells of the arteries, resulting in arterial dilation and reduced blood pressure, thus better circulation. Reinhold Messner used garlic supplements for high-altitude climbing because physiologists claimed they improved vascular elasticity. Both dry and liquid forms of garlic supplements also increase the number of natural killer cells in the body, improving immunity and reducing the risk of cancer.

Of course, bear in mind that Soles and Twight are not doctors...

Thinning the blood

Acclimitization means the blood becomes rich with platelets, making it thick. Some medicines thin the blood (which may be desirable), so it may be wise to avoid taking more than one such medicine. From Climbing: training for peak performance by Clyde Soles, we have:

Aspirin. For over a century, mountaineers have been taking aspirin to combat headaches at altitude. Other over-the-counter painkillers, such as ibuprofen and naproxen, work as well. However, aspirin also helps thin the blood, so it might help performance at very high altitude. Do not take aspirin with ginkgo biloba or high doses of garlic because they can increase the tendency to bleed.

Cautions

Acetazolamide has unwanted side-effects, and most of the other strong altitude medicines have worse side-effects, so don't pop these pills on Mt. Whitney unless you absolutely need them. And of course, drugs may interact with each other. No website is a substitute for advice from your personal physician. This website was not written by a doctor!

from Clyde Soles' book

Worth reading. For copyright reasons, we don't reproduce it verbatim here, but we do suggest that you look at the google books version linked to above. Below are some summaries:

  • Hydration: Soles says you should drink a lot and feel a need to urinate almost hourly. Urine should be very pale yellow. 1 to 2 gallons per day.
  • Diet: Soles recommends carbohydrates for several reasons. It requires less oxygen to burn, and a study showed that it reduced AMS symptoms.
  • Multivitamins: antioxidant vitamins may help. One study reported that a cocktail of vitamin C, vitamin E, and alpha-lipoic acid resulted in better O2 saturation (see book for exact amounts). He also warns that vitamin C with excess iron is a pro-oxidant and can even be fatal. So don't take iron supplements along with antioxidants.
  • Amino Acids: BCAAs and glutamine have been suggested for acclimitization.
  • Garlic: discussed above.
  • Ginkgo Biloba: has been used for a long time and starting to see scientific validation. Suggests 160 to 240 mg (which is a lot). Discussed above.
  • Aspirin: discussed above.
  • Acetazolamide (aka Diamox): for altitude sickness. Very cheap with Caltech insurance! Requires prescription. Not to be taken lightly. Soles recommends 2 125 mg doses per day in order to minimize side effects, and to start the course a day before the ascent. See also Houston's advice. Soles recommends to avoid aspirin with Diamox as it may create complications. He also warns of side effects: frequent urination; tingling in fingers, toes and lips; changing taste of carbonated beverages; blurred vision.
  • Dexamethasone, a powerful steroid. Soles doesn't say much, other than that as a pill, it is used for AMS, and as a intermuscular injection, it is used for HACE.
  • Sildenafil (viagra): may help with HAPE> See also salmeterol (Serevent) which is a bronchodilator for asthmatics.
  • Nifedipine (procardia) for HAPE.
  • Modafinil (provigil) for staying awake.

from Mark Twight's book

Your doctor would be unlikely to agree with many of Twight's suggestions. On some of the issues, your doctor is probably too conservative, and on other issues, Twight's advice may be unfounded and dangerous.

Twight now runs Gym Jones, and you very quickly get an idea of his philosophy if you browse the Gym's website. He takes a very competitive approach to training. If the supplements he lists below are not enough for your taste, look for more at wikipedia's bodybuilding supplement page.

Here's what Twight says in his book (see this google books excerpt):

  • Vitamin C: Twight suggests 1 to 2 grams/day (some suggest even more) -- this is a lot! See Soles' note about iron.
  • Antioxidants: suggests vitamin C, vitamin E, L-glutathione and selenium; perhaps also coenzyme Q-10, n-acetyl cysteine and beta carotene.
  • Aspirin: not just for the usual symptoms, but also might prevent heart disease by inhibit formation of the "thromboxane A2" hormone; the effect is to lower blood platelet concentration and prevent constriction of blood vessels. For cold weather, Twight suggests 1 325 mg tablet every 12 hours to keep blood thin and flowing (and this will also keep fingers and toes warmer).
  • Garlic: see above
  • Eleutherococcus senticosus: aka EC. A herb, used and tested mainly in Russia. Twight has used for four years (as of the time of the book) and recommends it. Claims it improves cognitive function, reflexes and endurance. Claims it is widely used for altitude among Soviet climbers, and that it has "virtually no side effects". See Twight's excerpt on google books for more details and his recommendations on how to get it (e.g. PrimeQuest). Remember, Twight is no doctor, and use your own judgment.
  • Phosphate: Twight says that athletes need more phosphate than they get through normal diet, and claims it reduces lactic acid levels in muscles, improves VO2 max, and improves power. On days after an extremely hard workout, Twight takes 1 g of sodium phosphate every 3 to 4 hours during exercise, and he also loads 4 g phosphate per day prior to a climb. He warns of taking more than 1.5 g at once due to stomach irritation. He suggests Stim-o-Stam or TwinLab's Phos Fuel (ed: I found a website for Phos Fuel, which sold it cheaply because it had been discontinued, which may be a bad sign. Use phosphate at your own risk!). The Phos Fuel contains, among other things, sodium phosphate.
  • Creatine monohydrate: this is standard body-building stuff. Twight recommends the creatine monohydrate over creatine phosphate. You use creatine during strength training, not during a climb. This, plus the now-illegal steroid andro (as well as other illegal steroids), was used by Marck McGuire to smash baseballs 500 feet. Warning: a well-known side-effect of creatine is increased water-retention, which means your weight goes up. Clearly not beneficial for sport climbing, and perhaps an issue with mountaineering.
  • Ornithine and alpha-ketoglutarate (see glutamine ).
  • Drinks: Twight believes in energy drinks and gus (he was sponsored by Gu back when he climbed), and suggests Cytomax, Hydra Fuel and Endura. The road biking community is big into these drinks, so check a bike forum or bike shop for more info. Twight warns about the herb Ma Huang and its ingredient norepinephrine: it's a stimulant that improves fat metabolism, but is a vasoconstrictor which is dangerous for alpine climbing. Note: this is aka ephedra and is illegal in the US as of 2004, after Twight's book came out. As for hydration, Twight recommends drinking a lot (e.g. much more than 1 gallon on an intense climbing day), and believes the time spent melting snow is often worth it because you will climb faster after hydrating.

See Also